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Detect industrial defects at low latency with computer vision at the edge with Amazon SageMaker Edge

Defect detection in manufacturing can benefit from machine learning (ML) and computer vision (CV) to reduce operational costs, improve time to market, and increase productivity, quality, and safety. According to McKinsey, the “benefits of defect detection and other Industry 4.0 applications are estimated to create a potential value of $3.7 trillion in 2025 for manufacturers…

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Defect detection in manufacturing can benefit from machine learning (ML) and computer vision (CV) to reduce operational costs, improve time to market, and increase productivity, quality, and safety. According to McKinsey, the “benefits of defect detection and other Industry 4.0 applications are estimated to create a potential value of $3.7 trillion in 2025 for manufacturers and suppliers.” Visual quality inspection is commonly used for monitoring production processes, either with human inspection or heuristics-based machine vision systems. Automated visual inspection and fault detection, using artificial intelligence (AI) for advanced image recognition, may increase productivity by 50% and defect detection rates by up to 90% as compared to human inspection.

Discrete manufacturing processes generate a high volume of products at low latency, ranging from milliseconds to a few seconds. To identify defects at the same throughput of production, camera streams of images need to be processed at low latency as well. Additionally, factories may have low network bandwidth or intermittent cloud connectivity. In such scenarios, you may prefer to run the defect detection system on your on-premises compute infrastructure, and upload the processed results for further development and monitoring purposes to the AWS Cloud. This hybrid approach with both local edge hardware and the cloud can address the low latency requirements as well as help reduce storage and network transfer costs to the cloud. For some customers, this can also fulfill data privacy and other regulatory requirements.

In this post, we show you how to create the cloud to edge solution with Amazon SageMaker to detect defective parts from a real-time stream of images sent to an edge device.

Amazon Lookout for Vision is an ML service that helps spot product defects using computer vision to automate the quality inspection process in your manufacturing lines, with no ML expertise required. You can get started with as few as 30 product images (20 normal, 10 anomalous) to train your image classification model and run inference on the AWS Cloud.

However, if you want to train or deploy your own custom model architecture and run inference at the edge, you can use Amazon SageMaker. SageMaker allows ML practitioners to build, train, optimize, deploy, and monitor high-quality models by providing a broad set of purpose-built ML capabilities. The fully managed service takes care of the undifferentiated infrastructure heavy lifting involved in ML projects. You can build the cloud to edge lifecycle we discussed with SageMaker components, including SageMaker Training, SageMaker Pipelines, and SageMaker Edge.

Edge devices can range from local on-premises virtualized Intel x86-64 hardware to small, powerful computers like Nvidia Jetson Xavier or commodity hardware with low resources. You can also consider the AWS Panorama Appliance, which is a hardware appliance installed on a customer’s network that interacts with existing, less-capable industrial cameras to run computer vision models on multiple concurrent video streams.

In this post, we use a public dataset of parts with surface defects and build CV models to identify parts as defective or not, and localize the defects to a specific region in the image. We build an automated pipeline on the AWS Cloud with SageMaker Pipelines to preprocess the dataset, and train and compile an image classification and semantic segmentation model from two different frameworks: Apache MXNet and TensorFlow. Then, we use SageMaker Edge to create a fleet of edge devices, install an agent to each device, prepare the compiled models for the device, load the model with the agent, run inference on the device and sync captured data back to the cloud. Finally, we demonstrate a custom application that runs inference on the edge device and share latency benchmarks for two different devices: Intel X86-64 CPU virtual machines and NVIDIA Jetson Nano with a NVIDIA Maxwell GPU.

The code for this example is available on GitHub.

Methodology

First, we capture images of parts, products, boxes, machines, and items on a conveyor belt with cameras and identify the appropriate edge hardware. Camera installations with local network connectivity must be set up on the production line to capture product images with low occlusion and good, consistent lighting. The cameras can range from high-frequency industrial vision cameras to regular IP cameras.

The images captured for a supervised ML task must include examples of both defective and non-defective products. The defective images are further up sampled by data augmentation techniques to reduce the class imbalance. These images are then annotated with image labeling tools to include metadata like defect classes, bounding boxes, and segmentation masks. An automated model building workflow is triggered to include a sequence of steps including data augmentation, model training, and postprocessing. Postprocessing steps include model compilation, optimization, and packaging to deploy to the target edge runtime. Model build and deployments are automated with continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) tooling to trigger model retraining on the cloud and over-the-air (OTA) updates to the edge.

The camera streams at the on-premises location are input to the target devices to trigger the models and detect defect types, bounding boxes, and image masks. The model outputs can raise alerts to operators or invoke other closed loop systems. The prediction input and output can then be captured and synced back to the cloud for further human review and retraining purposes. The status and performance of the models and edge devices can be further monitored on the cloud in regular intervals.

The following diagram illustrates this architecture.

Next, we describe an example of the cloud to edge lifecycle for defect detection with SageMaker.

Dataset and use case

Typical use cases in industrial defect detection most often include simple binary classification (such as determining whether a defect exists or not). In some cases, it’s also beneficial to find out where exactly the defect is located on the unit under test (UUT). The dataset can be annotated to include both image categories and ground truth masks that indicate the location of the defect.

In this example, we use the KolektorSDD2 dataset, which consists of around 3,335 images of surfaces with and without defects and their corresponding ground truth masks. Examples of such defects in this dataset are shown in the following image. Permission for usage of this dataset is granted by the Kolektor Group that provided and annotated the images.

Those instances of defective parts are represented with respective ground truth masks as shown in the following images.

Models

As we mentioned, you might want to know not only whether a part is defective or not, but also the location of the defect. Therefore, we train and deploy two different types of models that run on the edge device with SageMaker:

Solution overview

The solution we outline in this post is available as a workshop on GitHub. For detailed implementation details, refer to the code and documentation in the repository.

The architecture of this solution is illustrated in the following image. It can be broken down in three main parts:

  1. Development and automated training of different model versions and model types in the cloud.
  2. Preparation of model artifacts and automated deployment onto the edge device.
  3. Inference on the edge to integrate with the business application. In this case, we show predictions in a simple web UI.

Model development and automated training

As shown in the preceding architecture diagram, the first part of the architecture includes training multiple CV models, generating artifacts, and managing those across different training runs and versions. We use two separate parametrized SageMaker model building pipelines for each model type as an orchestrator for automated model training to chain together data preprocessing, training, and evaluation jobs. This enables a streamlined model development process and traceability across multiple model-building iterations over time.

After a training pipeline runs successfully and the evaluated model performance is satisfactory, a new model package is registered in a specified model package group in the SageMaker Model Registry. The registry allows us to keep track of different versions of models, compare their metrics in a central place, and audit approval or rejection actions. After a new version of a model in the model package group is approved, it can trigger the next stage for edge deployment. A successful pipeline run for image classification is illustrated in the following screenshot. The pipeline scripts for image classification and semantic segmentation are available on GitHub.

Model deployment onto the edge

A prerequisite for model deployment to the edge is that the edge device is configured accordingly. We install the SageMaker Edge Agent and an application to handle the deployment and manage the lifecycle of models on the device. We provide a simple install script to manually bootstrap the edge device.

This stage includes preparation of the model artifact and deployment to the edge. This is composed of three steps:

  1. Compile the model with SageMaker Neo.
  2. Package the model with SageMaker Edge.
  3. Create an AWS IoT Core job to instruct the edge application to download the model package.

In this example, we need to run these steps for both of the model types, and for each new version of the trained models. The application on the edge device acts as a MQTT client and communicates securely with the AWS Cloud using AWS IoT certificates. It’s configured to process incoming AWS IoT jobs and download the respective model package as instructed.

You can easily automate these steps, for example by using an AWS Step Functions workflow and calling the respective APIs for SageMaker Edge and AWS IoT programmatically. You can also use Amazon EventBridge events triggered by an approval action in the model registry, and automate model building and model deployment onto the edge device. Also, SageMaker Edge integrates with AWS IoT Greengrass V2 to simplify accessing, maintaining, and deploying the SageMaker Edge Agent and model to your devices. You can use AWS IoT Greengrass V2 for device management in this context as well.

Inference on the edge

The edge device runs the application for defect detection with local ML inference. We build a simple web application that runs locally on the edge device and shows inference results in real time for incoming images. Also, the application provides additional information about the models and their versions currently loaded into SageMaker Edge Agent.

In the following image, we can see the web UI of the edge application. At the top, a table of different models loaded into the edge agent is displayed, together with their version and an identifier used by the SageMaker Edge Agent to uniquely identify this model version. We persist the edge model configuration across the lifetime of the application. In the center, we see the incoming image taken by the camera in real time, which clearly shows a surface defect on the part. Finally, at the bottom, the model predictions are shown. This includes the inference results from both models that are loaded in the SageMaker Edge Agent to classify the image as anomalous or not and identify the actual location mask of the defect.

The application on the edge device manages the lifecycle of the models at the edge, like downloading artifacts, managing versions, and loading new versions. The SageMaker Edge Agent runs as a process on the edge device and loads models of different versions and frameworks as instructed from the application. The application and the agent communicate via gRPC API calls to ensure low overhead latency. The basic flow of the inference logic is outlined in the following illustration.

It’s important to monitor the performance of the models deployed on the edge to detect a drift in model accuracy. You can sync postprocessed data and predictions to the cloud for tracking purposes and model retraining. The SageMaker Edge Agent provides an API for captured data to be synced back to Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). In this example, we can trigger model retraining with the automated training pipelines and deploy new model versions to the edge device.

Inference latency results

We can use SageMaker Edge to run inference on a wide range of edge devices. As of this writing, these include a subset of devices, chip architectures, and systems that are supported as compilation targets with Neo. We also conducted tests on two different edge devices: Intel X86-64 CPU virtual machines and NVIDIA Jetson Nano with a NVIDIA Maxwell GPU. We measured the end-to-end latency that includes the time taken to send the input payload to the SageMaker Edge Agent from the application, model inference latency with the SageMaker Edge Agent runtime, and time taken to send the output payload back to the application. This time doesn’t include the preprocessing that takes place at the application. The following table includes the results for two device types and two model types with an input image payload of 400 KB.

Model Model architecture Model runtime Edge device type p50 latency
Image Classification ResNet18 SageMaker Edge Agent Intel X86-64 (2 vCPU) 384 ms
Image Classification ResNet18 SageMaker Edge Agent Nvidia Jetson Nano GPU 64 ms
Semantic Segmentation U-Net SageMaker Edge Agent Intel X86-64 (2 vCPU) 279 ms
Semantic Segmentation U-Net SageMaker Edge Agent Nvidia Jetson Nano GPU 132 ms

Conclusion

In this post, we described a typical scenario for industrial defect detection at the edge with SageMaker. We walked through the key components of the cloud and edge lifecycle with an end-to-end example with the KolektorSDD2 dataset and computer vision models from two different frameworks (Apache MXNet and TensorFlow). We addressed the key challenges of managing multiple ML models on a fleet of edge devices, compiling models to eliminate the need of installing individual frameworks, and triggering model inference at low latency from an edge application via a simple API.

You can use Pipelines to automate training on the cloud, SageMaker Edge to prepare models and the device agent, AWS IoT jobs to deploy models to the device, and SageMaker Edge to securely manage and monitor models on the device. With ML inference at the edge, you can reduce storage and network transfer costs to the cloud, fulfill data privacy requirements, and build low-latency control systems with intermittent cloud connectivity.

After successfully implementing the solution for a single factory, you can scale it out to multiple factories in different locations with centralized governance on the AWS Cloud.

Try out the code from the sample workshop for your own use cases for CV inference at the edge.

About the Authors

David Lichtenwalter is an Associate Solutions Architect at AWS, based in Munich, Germany. David works with customers from the German manufacturing industry to enable them with best practices in their cloud journey. He is passionate about Machine Learning and how it can be leveraged to solve difficult industry challenges.

Hasan Poonawala is a Senior AI/ML Specialist Solutions Architect at AWS, based in London, UK. Hasan helps customers design and deploy machine learning applications in production on AWS. He has over 12 years of work experience as a data scientist, machine learning practitioner and software developer. In his spare time, Hasan loves to explore nature and spend time with friends and family.

Samir Araújo is an AI/ML Solutions Architect at AWS. He helps customers creating AI/ML solutions which solve their business challenges using AWS. He has been working on several AI/ML projects related to computer vision, natural language processing, forecasting, ML at the edge, and more. He likes playing with hardware and automation projects in his free time, and he has a particular interest for robotics.



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Customize pronunciation using lexicons in Amazon Polly

Amazon Polly is a text-to-speech service that uses advanced deep learning technologies to synthesize natural-sounding human speech. It is used in a variety of use cases, such as contact center systems, delivering conversational user experiences with human-like voices for automated real-time status check, automated account and billing inquiries, and by news agencies like The Washington…

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Amazon Polly is a text-to-speech service that uses advanced deep learning technologies to synthesize natural-sounding human speech. It is used in a variety of use cases, such as contact center systems, delivering conversational user experiences with human-like voices for automated real-time status check, automated account and billing inquiries, and by news agencies like The Washington Post to allow readers to listen to news articles.

As of today, Amazon Polly provides over 60 voices in 30+ language variants. Amazon Polly also uses context to pronounce certain words differently based upon the verb tense and other contextual information. For example, “read” in “I read a book” (present tense) and “I will read a book” (future tense) is pronounced differently.

However, in some situations you may want to customize the way Amazon Polly pronounces a word. For example, you may need to match the pronunciation with local dialect or vernacular. Names of things (e.g., Tomato can be pronounced as tom-ah-to or tom-ay-to), people, streets, or places are often pronounced in many different ways.

In this post, we demonstrate how you can leverage lexicons for creating custom pronunciations. You can apply lexicons for use cases such as publishing, education, or call centers.

Customize pronunciation using SSML tag

Let’s say you stream a popular podcast from Australia and you use the Amazon Polly Australian English (Olivia) voice to convert your script into human-like speech. In one of your scripts, you want to use words that are unknown to Amazon Polly voice. For example, you want to send Mātariki (Māori New Year) greetings to your New Zealand listeners. For such scenarios, Amazon Polly supports phonetic pronunciation, which you can use to achieve a pronunciation that is close to the correct pronunciation in the foreign language.

You can use the Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) tag to suggest a phonetic pronunciation in the ph attribute. Let me show you how you can use SSML tag.

First, login into your AWS console and search for Amazon Polly in the search bar at the top. Select Amazon Polly and then choose Try Polly button.

In the Amazon Polly console, select Australian English from the language dropdown and enter following text in the Input text box and then click on Listen to test the pronunciation.

I’m wishing you all a very Happy Mātariki.

Sample speech without applying phonetic pronunciation:

If you hear the sample speech above, you can notice that the pronunciation of Mātariki – a word which is not part of Australian English – isn’t quite spot-on. Now, let’s look at how in such scenarios we can use phonetic pronunciation using SSML tag to customize the speech produced by Amazon Polly.

To use SSML tags, turn ON the SSML option in Amazon Polly console. Then copy and paste following SSML script containing phonetic pronunciation for Mātariki specified inside the ph attribute of the tag.

I’m wishing you all a very Happy Mātariki.

With the tag, Amazon Polly uses the pronunciation specified by the ph attribute instead of the standard pronunciation associated by default with the language used by the selected voice.

Sample speech after applying phonetic pronunciation:

If you hear the sample sound, you’ll notice that we opted for a different pronunciation for some of vowels (e.g., ā) to make Amazon Polly synthesize the sounds that are closer to the correct pronunciation. Now you might have a question, how do I generate the phonetic transcription “mA:.tA:.ri.ki” for the word Mātariki?

You can create phonetic transcriptions by referring to the Phoneme and Viseme tables for the supported languages. In the example above we have used the phonemes for Australian English.

Amazon Polly offers support in two phonetic alphabets: IPA and X-Sampa. Benefit of X-Sampa is that they are standard ASCII characters, so it is easier to type the phonetic transcription with a normal keyboard. You can use either of IPA or X-Sampa to generate your transcriptions, but make sure to stay consistent with your choice, especially when you use a lexicon file which we’ll cover in the next section.

Each phoneme in the phoneme table represents a speech sound. The bolded letters in the “Example” column of the Phoneme/Viseme table in the Australian English page linked above represent the part of the word the “Phoneme” corresponds to. For example, the phoneme /j/ represents the sound that an Australian English speaker makes when pronouncing the letter “y” in “yes.”

Customize pronunciation using lexicons

Phoneme tags are suitable for one-off situations to customize isolated cases, but these are not scalable. If you process huge volume of text, managed by different editors and reviewers, we recommend using lexicons. Using lexicons, you can achieve consistency in adding custom pronunciations and simultaneously reduce manual effort of inserting phoneme tags into the script.

A good practice is that after you test the custom pronunciation on the Amazon Polly console using the tag, you create a library of customized pronunciations using lexicons. Once lexicons file is uploaded, Amazon Polly will automatically apply phonetic pronunciations specified in the lexicons file and eliminate the need to manually provide a tag.

Create a lexicon file

A lexicon file contains the mapping between words and their phonetic pronunciations. Pronunciation Lexicon Specification (PLS) is a W3C recommendation for specifying interoperable pronunciation information. The following is an example PLS document:

Matariki Mātariki mA:.tA:.ri.ki NZ New Zealand

Make sure that you use correct value for the xml:lang field. Use en-AU if you’re uploading the lexicon file to use with the Amazon Polly Australian English voice. For a complete list of supported languages, refer to Languages Supported by Amazon Polly.

To specify a custom pronunciation, you need to add a element which is a container for a lexical entry with one or more element and one or more pronunciation information provided inside element.

The element contains the text describing the orthography of the element. You can use a element to specify the word whose pronunciation you want to customize. You can add multiple elements to specify all word variations, for example with or without macrons. The element is case-sensitive, and during speech synthesis Amazon Polly string matches the words inside your script that you’re converting to speech. If a match is found, it uses the element, which describes how the is pronounced to generate phonetic transcription.

You can also use for commonly used abbreviations. In the preceding example of a lexicon file, NZ is used as an alias for New Zealand. This means that whenever Amazon Polly comes across “NZ” (with matching case) in the body of the text, it’ll read those two letters as “New Zealand”.

For more information on lexicon file format, see Pronunciation Lexicon Specification (PLS) Version 1.0 on the W3C website.

You can save a lexicon file with as a .pls or .xml file before uploading it to Amazon Polly.

Upload and apply the lexicon file

Upload your lexicon file to Amazon Polly using the following instructions:

  1. On the Amazon Polly console, choose Lexicons in the navigation pane.
  2. Choose Upload lexicon.
  3. Enter a name for the lexicon and then choose a lexicon file.
  4. Choose the file to upload.
  5. Choose Upload lexicon.

If a lexicon by the same name (whether a .pls or .xml file) already exists, uploading the lexicon overwrites the existing lexicon.

Now you can apply the lexicon to customize pronunciation.

  1. Choose Text-to-Speech in the navigation pane.
  2. Expand Additional settings.
  3. Turn on Customize pronunciation.
  4. Choose the lexicon on the drop-down menu.

You can also choose Upload lexicon to upload a new lexicon file (or a new version).

It’s a good practice to version control the lexicon file in a source code repository. Keeping the custom pronunciations in a lexicon file ensures that you can consistently refer to phonetic pronunciations for certain words across the organization. Also, keep in mind the pronunciation lexicon limits mentioned on Quotas in Amazon Polly page.

Test the pronunciation after applying the lexicon

Let’s perform quick test using “Wishing all my listeners in NZ, a very Happy Mātariki” as the input text.

We can compare the audio files before and after applying the lexicon.

Before applying the lexicon:

After applying the lexicon:

Conclusion

In this post, we discussed how you can customize pronunciations of commonly used acronyms or words not found in the selected language in Amazon Polly. You can use SSML tag which is great for inserting one-off customizations or testing purposes. We recommend using Lexicon to create a consistent set of pronunciations for frequently used words across your organization. This enables your content writers to spend time on writing instead of the tedious task of adding phonetic pronunciations in the script repetitively. You can try this in your AWS account on the Amazon Polly console.

Summary of resources

About the Authors

Ratan Kumar is a Solutions Architect based out of Auckland, New Zealand. He works with large enterprise customers helping them design and build secure, cost-effective, and reliable internet scale applications using the AWS cloud. He is passionate about technology and likes sharing knowledge through blog posts and twitch sessions.

Maciek Tegi is a Principal Audio Designer and a Product Manager for Polly Brand Voices. He has worked in professional capacity in the tech industry, movies, commercials and game localization. In 2013, he was the first audio engineer hired to the Alexa Text-To- Speech team. Maciek was involved in releasing 12 Alexa TTS voices across different countries, over 20 Polly voices, and 4 Alexa celebrity voices. Maciek is a triathlete, and an avid acoustic guitar player.



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AWS Week in Review – May 16, 2022

This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS! I had been on the road for the last five weeks and attended many of the AWS Summits in Europe. It was great to talk to so many of you…

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This post is part of our Week in Review series. Check back each week for a quick roundup of interesting news and announcements from AWS!

I had been on the road for the last five weeks and attended many of the AWS Summits in Europe. It was great to talk to so many of you in person. The Serverless Developer Advocates are going around many of the AWS Summits with the Serverlesspresso booth. If you attend an event that has the booth, say “Hi ” to my colleagues, and have a coffee while asking all your serverless questions. You can find all the upcoming AWS Summits in the events section at the end of this post.

Last week’s launches
Here are some launches that got my attention during the previous week.

AWS Step Functions announced a new console experience to debug your state machine executions – Now you can opt-in to the new console experience of Step Functions, which makes it easier to analyze, debug, and optimize Standard Workflows. The new page allows you to inspect executions using three different views: graph, table, and event view, and add many new features to enhance the navigation and analysis of the executions. To learn about all the features and how to use them, read Ben’s blog post.

Example on how the Graph View looks

Example on how the Graph View looks

AWS Lambda now supports Node.js 16.x runtime – Now you can start using the Node.js 16 runtime when you create a new function or update your existing functions to use it. You can also use the new container image base that supports this runtime. To learn more about this launch, check Dan’s blog post.

AWS Amplify announces its Android library designed for Kotlin – The Amplify Android library has been rewritten for Kotlin, and now it is available in preview. This new library provides better debugging capacities and visibility into underlying state management. And it is also using the new AWS SDK for Kotlin that was released last year in preview. Read the What’s New post for more information.

Three new APIs for batch data retrieval in AWS IoT SiteWise – With this new launch AWS IoT SiteWise now supports batch data retrieval from multiple asset properties. The new APIs allow you to retrieve current values, historical values, and aggregated values. Read the What’s New post to learn how you can start using the new APIs.

AWS Secrets Manager now publishes secret usage metrics to Amazon CloudWatch – This launch is very useful to see the number of secrets in your account and set alarms for any unexpected increase or decrease in the number of secrets. Read the documentation on Monitoring Secrets Manager with Amazon CloudWatch for more information.

For a full list of AWS announcements, be sure to keep an eye on the What’s New at AWS page.

Other AWS News
Some other launches and news that you may have missed:

IBM signed a deal with AWS to offer its software portfolio as a service on AWS. This allows customers using AWS to access IBM software for automation, data and artificial intelligence, and security that is built on Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS.

Podcast Charlas Técnicas de AWS – If you understand Spanish, this podcast is for you. Podcast Charlas Técnicas is one of the official AWS podcasts in Spanish. This week’s episode introduces you to Amazon DynamoDB and shares stories on how different customers use this database service. You can listen to all the episodes directly from your favorite podcast app or the podcast web page.

AWS Open Source News and Updates – Ricardo Sueiras, my colleague from the AWS Developer Relation team, runs this newsletter. It brings you all the latest open-source projects, posts, and more. Read edition #112 here.

Upcoming AWS Events
It’s AWS Summits season and here are some virtual and in-person events that might be close to you:

You can register for re:MARS to get fresh ideas on topics such as machine learning, automation, robotics, and space. The conference will be in person in Las Vegas, June 21–24.

That’s all for this week. Check back next Monday for another Week in Review!

— Marcia



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Personalize your machine translation results by using fuzzy matching with Amazon Translate

A person’s vernacular is part of the characteristics that make them unique. There are often countless different ways to express one specific idea. When a firm communicates with their customers, it’s critical that the message is delivered in a way that best represents the information they’re trying to convey. This becomes even more important when…

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A person’s vernacular is part of the characteristics that make them unique. There are often countless different ways to express one specific idea. When a firm communicates with their customers, it’s critical that the message is delivered in a way that best represents the information they’re trying to convey. This becomes even more important when it comes to professional language translation. Customers of translation systems and services expect accurate and highly customized outputs. To achieve this, they often reuse previous translation outputs—called translation memory (TM)—and compare them to new input text. In computer-assisted translation, this technique is known as fuzzy matching. The primary function of fuzzy matching is to assist the translator by speeding up the translation process. When an exact match can’t be found in the TM database for the text being translated, translation management systems (TMSs) often have the option to search for a match that is less than exact. Potential matches are provided to the translator as additional input for final translation. Translators who enhance their workflow with machine translation capabilities such as Amazon Translate often expect fuzzy matching data to be used as part of the automated translation solution.

In this post, you learn how to customize output from Amazon Translate according to translation memory fuzzy match quality scores.

Translation Quality Match

The XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF) standard is often used as a data exchange format between TMSs and Amazon Translate. XLIFF files produced by TMSs include source and target text data along with match quality scores based on the available TM. These scores—usually expressed as a percentage—indicate how close the translation memory is to the text being translated.

Some customers with very strict requirements only want machine translation to be used when match quality scores are below a certain threshold. Beyond this threshold, they expect their own translation memory to take precedence. Translators often need to apply these preferences manually either within their TMS or by altering the text data. This flow is illustrated in the following diagram. The machine translation system processes the translation data—text and fuzzy match scores— which is then reviewed and manually edited by translators, based on their desired quality thresholds. Applying thresholds as part of the machine translation step allows you to remove these manual steps, which improves efficiency and optimizes cost.

Machine Translation Review Flow

Figure 1: Machine Translation Review Flow

The solution presented in this post allows you to enforce rules based on match quality score thresholds to drive whether a given input text should be machine translated by Amazon Translate or not. When not machine translated, the resulting text is left to the discretion of the translators reviewing the final output.

Solution Architecture

The solution architecture illustrated in Figure 2 leverages the following services:

  • Amazon Simple Storage Service – Amazon S3 buckets contain the following content:
    • Fuzzy match threshold configuration files
    • Source text to be translated
    • Amazon Translate input and output data locations
  • AWS Systems Manager – We use Parameter Store parameters to store match quality threshold configuration values
  • AWS Lambda – We use two Lambda functions:
    • One function preprocesses the quality match threshold configuration files and persists the data into Parameter Store
    • One function automatically creates the asynchronous translation jobs
  • Amazon Simple Queue Service – An Amazon SQS queue triggers the translation flow as a result of new files coming into the source bucket

Solution Architecture Diagram

Figure 2: Solution Architecture

You first set up quality thresholds for your translation jobs by editing a configuration file and uploading it into the fuzzy match threshold configuration S3 bucket. The following is a sample configuration in CSV format. We chose CSV for simplicity, although you can use any format. Each line represents a threshold to be applied to either a specific translation job or as a default value to any job.

default, 75 SourceMT-Test, 80

The specifications of the configuration file are as follows:

  • Column 1 should be populated with the name of the XLIFF file—without extension—provided to the Amazon Translate job as input data.
  • Column 2 should be populated with the quality match percentage threshold. For any score below this value, machine translation is used.
  • For all XLIFF files whose name doesn’t match any name listed in the configuration file, the default threshold is used—the line with the keyword default set in Column 1.

Auto-generated parameter in Systems Manager Parameter Store

Figure 3: Auto-generated parameter in Systems Manager Parameter Store

When a new file is uploaded, Amazon S3 triggers the Lambda function in charge of processing the parameters. This function reads and stores the threshold parameters into Parameter Store for future usage. Using Parameter Store avoids performing redundant Amazon S3 GET requests each time a new translation job is initiated. The sample configuration file produces the parameter tags shown in the following screenshot.

The job initialization Lambda function uses these parameters to preprocess the data prior to invoking Amazon Translate. We use an English-to-Spanish translation XLIFF input file, as shown in the following code. It contains the initial text to be translated, broken down into what is referred to as segments, represented in the source tags.

Consent Form CONSENT FORM FORMULARIO DE CONSENTIMIENTO Screening Visit: Screening Visit Selección

The source text has been pre-matched with the translation memory beforehand. The data contains potential translation alternatives—represented as tags—alongside a match quality attribute, expressed as a percentage. The business rule is as follows:

  • Segments received with alternative translations and a match quality below the threshold are untouched or empty. This signals to Amazon Translate that they must be translated.
  • Segments received with alternative translations with a match quality above the threshold are pre-populated with the suggested target text. Amazon Translate skips those segments.

Let’s assume the quality match threshold configured for this job is 80%. The first segment with 99% match quality isn’t machine translated, whereas the second segment is, because its match quality is below the defined threshold. In this configuration, Amazon Translate produces the following output:

Consent Form FORMULARIO DE CONSENTIMIENTO CONSENT FORM FORMULARIO DE CONSENTIMIENTO Screening Visit: Visita de selección Screening Visit Selección

In the second segment, Amazon Translate overwrites the target text initially suggested (Selección) with a higher quality translation: Visita de selección.

One possible extension to this use case could be to reuse the translated output and create our own translation memory. Amazon Translate supports customization of machine translation using translation memory thanks to the parallel data feature. Text segments previously machine translated due to their initial low-quality score could then be reused in new translation projects.

In the following sections, we walk you through the process of deploying and testing this solution. You use AWS CloudFormation scripts and data samples to launch an asynchronous translation job personalized with a configurable quality match threshold.

Prerequisites

For this walkthrough, you must have an AWS account. If you don’t have an account yet, you can create and activate one.

Launch AWS CloudFormation stack

  1. Choose Launch Stack:
  2. For Stack name, enter a name.
  3. For ConfigBucketName, enter the S3 bucket containing the threshold configuration files.
  4. For ParameterStoreRoot, enter the root path of the parameters created by the parameters processing Lambda function.
  5. For QueueName, enter the SQS queue that you create to post new file notifications from the source bucket to the job initialization Lambda function. This is the function that reads the configuration file.
  6. For SourceBucketName, enter the S3 bucket containing the XLIFF files to be translated. If you prefer to use a preexisting bucket, you need to change the value of the CreateSourceBucket parameter to No.
  7. For WorkingBucketName, enter the S3 bucket Amazon Translate uses for input and output data.
  8. Choose Next.

    Figure 4: CloudFormation stack details

  9. Optionally on the Stack Options page, add key names and values for the tags you may want to assign to the resources about to be created.
  10. Choose Next.
  11. On the Review page, select I acknowledge that this template might cause AWS CloudFormation to create IAM resources.
  12. Review the other settings, then choose Create stack.

AWS CloudFormation takes several minutes to create the resources on your behalf. You can watch the progress on the Events tab on the AWS CloudFormation console. When the stack has been created, you can see a CREATE_COMPLETE message in the Status column on the Overview tab.

Test the solution

Let’s go through a simple example.

  1. Download the following sample data.
  2. Unzip the content.

There should be two files: an .xlf file in XLIFF format, and a threshold configuration file with .cfg as the extension. The following is an excerpt of the XLIFF file.

English to French sample file extract

Figure 5: English to French sample file extract

  1. On the Amazon S3 console, upload the quality threshold configuration file into the configuration bucket you specified earlier.

The value set for test_En_to_Fr is 75%. You should be able to see the parameters on the Systems Manager console in the Parameter Store section.

  1. Still on the Amazon S3 console, upload the .xlf file into the S3 bucket you configured as source. Make sure the file is under a folder named translate (for example, /translate/test_En_to_Fr.xlf).

This starts the translation flow.

  1. Open the Amazon Translate console.

A new job should appear with a status of In Progress.

Auto-generated parameter in Systems Manager Parameter Store

Figure 6: In progress translation jobs on Amazon Translate console

  1. Once the job is complete, click into the job’s link and consult the output. All segments should have been translated.

All segments should have been translated. In the translated XLIFF file, look for segments with additional attributes named lscustom:match-quality, as shown in the following screenshot. These custom attributes identify segments where suggested translation was retained based on score.

Custom attributes identifying segments where suggested translation was retained based on score

Figure 7: Custom attributes identifying segments where suggested translation was retained based on score

These were derived from the translation memory according to the quality threshold. All other segments were machine translated.

You have now deployed and tested an automated asynchronous translation job assistant that enforces configurable translation memory match quality thresholds. Great job!

Cleanup

If you deployed the solution into your account, don’t forget to delete the CloudFormation stack to avoid any unexpected cost. You need to empty the S3 buckets manually beforehand.

Conclusion

In this post, you learned how to customize your Amazon Translate translation jobs based on standard XLIFF fuzzy matching quality metrics. With this solution, you can greatly reduce the manual labor involved in reviewing machine translated text while also optimizing your usage of Amazon Translate. You can also extend the solution with data ingestion automation and workflow orchestration capabilities, as described in Speed Up Translation Jobs with a Fully Automated Translation System Assistant.

About the Authors

Narcisse Zekpa is a Solutions Architect based in Boston. He helps customers in the Northeast U.S. accelerate their adoption of the AWS Cloud, by providing architectural guidelines, design innovative, and scalable solutions. When Narcisse is not building, he enjoys spending time with his family, traveling, cooking, and playing basketball.

Dimitri Restaino is a Solutions Architect at AWS, based out of Brooklyn, New York. He works primarily with Healthcare and Financial Services companies in the North East, helping to design innovative and creative solutions to best serve their customers. Coming from a software development background, he is excited by the new possibilities that serverless technology can bring to the world. Outside of work, he loves to hike and explore the NYC food scene.



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