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Build a shelf monitoring application using AWS Panorama

Out-of-stock (OOS) is an essential metric tracked across the retail industry. Brick-and-mortar retailers seek to reduce their costs associated with OOS items, while simultaneously increasing shopper satisfaction without inventory surplus. A product can be OOS in three main ways: Distribution OOS, Store OOS, and Shelf OOS. This post focuses on Shelf OOS. Shelf OOS occurs…

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Out-of-stock (OOS) is an essential metric tracked across the retail industry. Brick-and-mortar retailers seek to reduce their costs associated with OOS items, while simultaneously increasing shopper satisfaction without inventory surplus.

A product can be OOS in three main ways: Distribution OOS, Store OOS, and Shelf OOS. This post focuses on Shelf OOS. Shelf OOS occurs when there is inventory in the store, but the item isn’t on the shelf. One OOS study, conducted by NACDS, estimates that 40% of shoppers encounter at least one OOS situation per week, and it assumes that only one in ten shoppers would ask a store associate for help finding the item they’re looking for. The study estimates annual losses could range between $1–4 million for small to large volume retail chains based on those initial estimates. The study also mentions that 25% of OOS issues occur when the item is available in the store, but not on the shelf at the time the shopper wants to purchase the item. With machine learning (ML) and computer vision (CV) applications, retailers can improve on-shelf product availability, increase sales revenue, and improve shopper satisfaction.

AWS Panorama is a CV and ML appliance and software development kit (SDK) that allows you to add CV applications at the edge, where internet bandwidth is limited, low latency is needed, and data privacy is required. AWS Panorama gives you the ability to add CV to your existing Internet Protocol (IP) cameras and automate tasks that traditionally require human inspection and monitoring.

In this post, we walk you through the steps to build a shelf monitoring application with AWS Panorama to monitor on-shelf availability of bottles and notify the store manager when the count of an item on the shelf goes below a certain threshold. A simple user interface allows store managers to check on stock quantities and change notification settings for OOS issues.

The following image shows an example of this application.

Prerequisites

For this walkthrough, you need the following hardware devices:

  • AWS Panorama Appliance.
  • An IP camera with RTSP support with H.264 video compression. For demonstration purposes, we use a JideTech IP Camera. Note that we don’t endorse this particular device; many IP cameras are compatible with AWS Panorama.

Solution overview

The following diagram illustrates the architecture of our solution.

The workflow of the solution is as follows:

  1. An IP camera deployed in the store monitors the shelf and streams video to the AWS Panorama Appliance. An application and a pre-trained ML model deployed to the AWS Panorama Appliance process the video frames from the IP camera. The application invokes a YOLOv3 model to detect “bottles” and captures the total count of bottles on the shelf. The application overlays object detection bounding boxes and confidence scores on the video frames, and these frames along with a JSON payload are sent to AWS Cloud for further processing.
  2. Images from AWS Panorama processing are stored in an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket.
  3. A JSON message that contains information on how many bottles are in the frame and reference to the frame location in Amazon S3 is put into an Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) queue for further processing.
  4. Amazon SQS triggers an AWS Lambda function as messages arrive. The function uses the data in the messages from the queue and calls a GraphQL API hosted on AWS AppSync.
  5. AWS AppSync performs two actions in this step:
    1. First, it stores the data in an Amazon DynamoDB table. When data is written to the table, a DynamoDB Streams event triggers another Lambda function. The function determines whether the bottle count changed, and it compares the new bottle count with the threshold value set by a store manager. The function sends an email and SMS notification to the store manager via Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) if the number of bottles is less than or equal to the threshold value.
    2. AWS Amplify builds and hosts the front end of the shelf monitoring user interface (UI). The front-end UI subscribes to the backend AWS AppSync mutations, which updates the UI with the shelf images and bottle counts automatically.
  6. Store managers can change the threshold value of an item from the UI. Changes to the threshold value from the UI are updated and stored by AWS AppSync and DynamoDB.

To deploy the solution, you complete the following high-level steps:

  1. Get a personal access token from GitHub.
  2. Store your token in AWS Secrets Manager.
  3. Deploy AWS resources using an AWS CloudFormation template.
  4. Configure your AWS Panorama Appliance.
  5. Deploy the shelf monitoring application.

Get a personal access token from GitHub

You need a GitHub account to deploy the solution. You use this GitHub account and personal access token to fork the full stack application into your AWS account using the AWS Amplify console. If you don’t have a GitHub account, you can sign up for one.

After you successfully log in to your GitHub account, use the following guide to generate a personal access token:

  1. On the user drop-down menu, choose Settings.
  2. Choose Developer Settings, then choose Personal access tokens.
  3. Choose Generate new token.
  4. For Note, enter a token name.
  5. For Expiration, choose an expiration date.
  6. For Select scopes, select repo.
  7. Leave the rest of the options as is and choose Generate token.
  8. On the next page, copy the value of the generated personal access token.

You store this value in Secrets Manager in the next step.

Store your personal access token in Secrets Manager

To store your personal access token, complete the following steps:

  1. Open the AWS Management Console and choose a Region where AWS Panorama is available.
  2. On the Secrets Manager console, choose Store a new secret.
  3. For Select secret type, select Other type of secrets.
  4. On the Plaintext tab, enter the value of the personal access token you copied.
  5. Choose Next.
  6. For Secret name, enter GITHUB_TOKEN.

Any name other than GITHUB_TOKEN may cause issues later in the tutorial.

  1. For Description, enter an optional description.
  2. Choose Next.
  3. Leave everything at its default in the Configure automatic rotation section and choose Next.
  4. In the Review section, choose Store to store the secret.

Deploy AWS resources using AWS CloudFormation

You use a CloudFormation stack to deploy the resources in AWS. This stack creates all the resources to deploy the shelf monitoring application, excluding the AWS Panorama Appliance deployment.

  1. Choose Launch Stack to launch AWS services:
  2. On the Specify stack details page, enter values for EmailAddress and PhoneNumber. OOS notifications are sent to the email address and phone number that you provide in this step.
  1. Leave the rest of the parameter values unchanged.
  2. Choose Next.
  3. Select I acknowledge that AWS CloudFormation might create IAM resources.
  4. Choose Create stack.

You can monitor various events from the stack creation process on the Events tab.

When the stack creation is complete, you see the status CREATE_COMPLETE.

You can look on the Resources tab to see all the resources that the CloudFormation template created.

  1. When the CloudFormation stack deployment is complete, choose the Outputs tab and copy the following values to use later in the AWS Panorama application deployment steps:
    • SQSQueueURL
    • ImageS3BucketName
    • WebAppURL
  1. Additionally, open the WebAppURL link in a browser window to verify that the shelf monitoring UI was deployed.

You should receive a subscription confirmation email from Amazon SNS to verify the email address.

  1. Open the email and choose Confirm Subscription to receive OOS notifications.

Set up your AWS Panorama Appliance

In this section, you complete the following steps:

  1. Register and configure the AWS Panorama Appliance.
  2. Upgrade the appliance software.
  3. Add a camera stream.

Register and configure the AWS Panorama Appliance

When you buy the AWS Panorama Appliance, you receive the appliance itself, a power cord, and two Ethernet cables. You also get a USB key to initially configure the appliance.

  1. Connect the AWS-provided USB drive to your computer.
  2. Prepare the AWS Panorama Appliance by connecting the network and power cables.

After the appliance powers on, it waits for a USB drive to be connected.

  1. Open the AWS Panorama console Getting started page.
  2. Choose Create.

This creates the necessary AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) service roles needed by AWS Panorama.

  1. Choose Add device.
  2. Choose Begin setup.
  3. Enter a name and description for the device resource that represents the appliance in AWS Panorama.
  4. Choose Next.
  5. If you need to manually assign an IP address and DNS settings, choose Advanced network settings. Otherwise, choose Next.
  6. Choose Download archive.
  7. Choose Next.
  8. Copy the configuration archive to the root directory of the USB drive.
  9. Connect the USB drive to the USB 3.0 port on the front of the appliance, next to the HDMI port.

When you connect the USB drive, the appliance copies the configuration archive and network configuration file to itself and connects to the AWS Cloud. The appliance’s status light turns from green to blue while it completes the connection, and then back to green.

  1. To continue, choose Next.
  2. Choose Done.

Upgrade the appliance software

The AWS Panorama Appliance has several software components, including an Ubuntu™ Linux™ – based environment, the AWS Panorama application SDK, and supporting CV libraries and frameworks. To ensure that you can use the latest features and applications with your appliance, upgrade its software after setup and whenever an update is available.

  1. Open the AWS Panorama console Appliances page.
  2. Select your appliance.
  3. On the Actions menu, choose Install software update.
  4. Under Software versions, choose a latest version.
  5. Choose Install.
  6. Before you continue to the next section, remove the USB drive from the appliance and format it to delete its contents.

The configuration archive contains sensitive data and is not deleted automatically.

The upgrade process can take up to 30 minutes or more. You can monitor its progress on the AWS Panorama console or a connected monitor. When the process is complete, the appliance reboots.

Add a camera stream

Next, register a camera stream with the AWS Panorama console.

  1. Open the AWS Panorama console Data sources page.
  2. Choose Add data source.
  3. Configure the following settings.
    • Name – A name for the camera stream.
    • Description – A short description of the camera, its location, or other details.
    • RTSP URL – A URL that specifies the camera’s IP address and the path to the stream. For example, rtsp://192.168.4.18/1/h264major.
    • Credentials – If the camera stream is password protected, specify the user name and password.
  4. Choose Save.

AWS Panorama stores your camera’s credentials securely in Secrets Manager. Multiple applications can process the same camera stream simultaneously.

Deploy the shelf monitoring application

You’re now ready to deploy the shelf monitoring application to your AWS Panorama Appliance. You need a command line terminal or shell to run commands. You also need the following prerequisites:

Docker™ is required for building a Docker image to run on the appliance. The AWS Panorama CLI is required for building the container and uploading the application to the AWS Panorama service. The latest AWS CLI is needed to download a model file from Amazon S3 and package the application for the AWS Panorama service account.

Follow the next steps to create an IAM User for the AWS Panorama CLI.

  1. Open the AWS IAM Console and click on Users.
  2. Click on Add users and provide a User name
  3. Select the Access key – Programmatic access from the AWS access type option, as shown below
  4. Click Next: Permissions and then click Attach existing policies directly.
  5. Type AWSPanoramaFullAccess in the search bar and select the check box.
  6. Click Next: Review and Create user on the following pages.
  7. Once the AWS IAM User is created, make note of the Access key ID and Secret access key. They will be used during the AWS CLI configuration setup.

Follow these steps to package the application and upload to the AWS Panorama service account:

  1. Open the terminal (for macOS) or command prompt (for Windows)
  2. Configure the AWS CLI with the access key ID and secret access key that you created earlier

>> aws configure >> AWS Access Key ID [****************HEJM]: >> AWS Secret Access Key [****************0jLM]: >> Default region name [us-east-1]: >> Default output format [None]:

Follow these steps to package the application and upload it to the AWS Panorama service account:

  1. Download the shelf monitoring application (Smart_Shelf.zip).
  2. Unzip the downloaded file.
  3. Open the terminal (for macOS) or command prompt (for Windows) and navigate to the directory where the unzipped folder is present (cd Smart_Shelf).
  4. Run the following commands to build the AWS Panorama application:

>> panorama-cli import-application >> ACCOUNT_ID=$(aws sts get-caller-identity –output text –query ‘Account’) >> panorama-cli build-container –container-asset-name smart_shelf_container –package-path packages/${ACCOUNT_ID}-smart_shelf-1.0 >> panorama-cli package-application

Follow these next steps to upload and deploy the application to your AWS Panorama Appliance.

  1. On the AWS Panorama console, choose Deployed applications in the navigation pane.
  2. Choose Deploy application.
  3. Open the graph.json file from the file folder path illustrated in the following screenshot and copy the contents.
  4. Enter the contents of the graph.json file on the Application template page.
  5. Choose Next.
  6. Provide an application name and deployment description (optional).
  7. Choose Begin deployment.
  8. For Select IAM role¸ choose Panorama-Shelf-Monitor-Execution-Role.
  9. Choose Next.
  10. Choose Select device, and then choose your appliance.
  11. Choose Next.
  12. On the Select data sources page, choose View input(s), and add your camera stream as a data source.
  13. Choose Next.
  14. On the Configure application page, replace the default values in S3 Bucket and SQS URL with the values that you copied after CloudFormation stack deployment.
  15. Choose Save.
  16. Choose Next on the next screen and then choose Deploy.
  17. Choose Done.

This process can take up to 15 minutes. When the deployment is complete, the application starts processing the video stream and sending logs to Amazon CloudWatch.

Test the end-to-end solution

At this point, you have an end-to-end application deployed to monitor bottle counts on a shelf. For the purposes of this demonstration, ensure that your IP camera is capturing video of one or more bottles on a surface without any other objects. You may choose to adjust your IP camera’s video frames per second (FPS) setting to less than 10 FPS. Refer to your camera manufacture’s manual to adjust the FPS.

Follow the next steps to see how the entire application works together:

  1. Place three bottles on the surface the IP camera is recording.
  2. In the shelf monitoring UI in your browser, choose the threshold drop-down and set the threshold to 1.
  3. Remove one bottle.

The updating image on the left side displays the current count of bottles and the detected bottles. You shouldn’t receive any notifications at this point.

  1. Remove one more bottle.

You should receive an OOS notification because the bottle count reached the threshold you set.

  1. Remove the last bottle.

You should receive another notification that the count has changed again.

Clean up

When you’re done working with your application, you can use the AWS Panorama console to remove it from the appliance. You also need to remove the resources deployed by the CloudFormation template. Complete the following cleanup steps:

  1. Open the AWS Panorama console Deployed applications page.
  2. Choose your application.
  3. Choose Delete from device.
  4. Empty the S3 buckets used in the demo.
  5. On the AWS CloudFormation console, and delete the CloudFormation stacks you deployed.
    1. For best results, remove the stack with amplify-smartshelf-main in the name, and then remove the Shelf-Monitoring stack created in the first step of the post.

Conclusion

In this post, you learned how to build a shelf monitoring solution using AWS Panorama. You can extend this solution for other physical retail use cases such as the following:

  • Queue management – Count the number of people waiting in a queue for better staff allocation
  • Heat maps – Create color-coded images that show the popularity of different areas inside the store
  • PPE detection – Run computer vision on the edge and identify if your employees are complying with personal protective equipment requirements.

You can also integrate other AWS services such as AWS IoT, AWS Data Lake House services, and Amazon QuickSight to collect, store, and analyze the detected objects; image classification; and other computer vision detections from your AWS Panorama applications.

We will continue to share more examples with you so you can build, develop, and test with the AWS Panorama Appliance SDK.

To get started with AWS Panorama, check out the following resources:

About the Authors

Amit Mukherjee is a Global Solutions Architect Lead with a focus on data analytics and AI/ML. He works with AWS Partners and customers to provide them with architectural guidance for building highly secure and scalable data analytics platforms and adopting machine learning at a large scale.

Laith Al-Saadoon is a Principal Prototyping Architect on the Envision Engineering team. He builds prototypes and solutions using AI, machine learning, IoT/edge computing, streaming analytics, robotics, and spatial computing to solve real-world customer problems. In his free time, Laith enjoys outdoor activities such as photography, drone flights, hiking, and paintballing.

Sourabh Agnihotri is a Solutions Architect with AWS. He works with AWS customers to provide them architectural guidance and help them build on AWS using a broad range of AWS Services. He is also an ML/AI enthusiast and follows the latest trends in ML/AI.



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Secure Amazon SageMaker Studio presigned URLs Part 2: Private API with JWT authentication

In part 1 of this series, we demonstrated how to resolve an Amazon SageMaker Studio presigned URL from a corporate network using Amazon private VPC endpoints without traversing the internet. In this post, we will continue to build on top of the previous solution to demonstrate how to build a private API Gateway via Amazon API…

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In part 1 of this series, we demonstrated how to resolve an Amazon SageMaker Studio presigned URL from a corporate network using Amazon private VPC endpoints without traversing the internet. In this post, we will continue to build on top of the previous solution to demonstrate how to build a private API Gateway via Amazon API Gateway as a proxy interface to generate and access Amazon SageMaker presigned URLs. Furthermore, we add an additional guardrail to ensure presigned URLs are only generated and accessed for the authenticated end-user within the corporate network.

Solution overview

The following diagram illustrates the architecture of the solution.

The process includes the following steps:

  1. In the Amazon Cognito user pool, first set up a user with the name matching their Studio user profile and register Studio as the app client in the user pool.
  2. The user federates from their corporate identity provider (IdP) and authenticates with the Amazon Cognito user pool for accessing Studio.
  3. Amazon Cognito returns a token to the user authorizing access to the Studio application.
  4. The user invokes createStudioPresignedUrl API on API Gateway along with a token in the header.
  5. API Gateway invokes a custom AWS Lambda authorizer and validates the token.
  6. When the token is valid, Amazon Cognito returns an access grant policy with studio user profile id to API Gateway.
  7. API Gateway invokes the createStudioPresignedUrl Lambda function for creating the studio presigned url.
  8. The createStudioPresignedUrl function creates a presigned URL using the SageMaker API VPC endpoint and returns to caller.
  9. User accesses the presigned URL from their corporate network that resolves over the Studio VPC endpoint.
  10. The function’s AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policy makes sure that the presigned URL creation and access are performed via VPC endpoints.

The following sections walk you through solution deployment, configuration, and validation for the API Gateway private API for creating and resolving a Studio presigned URL from a corporate network using VPC endpoints.

  1. Deploy the solution
  2. Configure the Amazon Cognito user
  3. Authenticating the private API for the presigned URL using a JSON Web Token
  4. Configure the corporate DNS server for accessing the private API
  5. Test the API Gateway private API for a presigned URL from the corporate network
  6. Pre-Signed URL Lambda Auth Policy
  7. Cleanup

Deploy the solution

You can deploy the solution through either the AWS Management Console or the AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM).

To deploy the solution via the console, launch the following AWS CloudFormation template in your account by choosing Launch Stack. It takes approximately 10 minutes for the CloudFormation stack to complete.

To deploy the solution using AWS SAM, you can find the latest code in the aws-samples GitHub repository, where you can also contribute to the sample code. The following commands show how to deploy the solution using the AWS SAM CLI. If not currently installed, install the AWS SAM CLI.

  1. Clone the repository at https://github.com/aws-samples/secure-sagemaker-studio-presigned-url.
  2. After you clone the repo, navigate to the source and run the following code:

Configure the Amazon Cognito user

To configure your Amazon Cognito user, complete the following steps:

  1. Create an Amazon Cognito user with the same name as a SageMaker user profile: aws cognito-idp admin-create-user –user-pool-id –username
  2. Set the user password: aws cognito-idp admin-set-user-password –user-pool-id –username –password –permanent
  3. Get an access token: aws cognito-idp initiate-auth –auth-flow USER_PASSWORD_AUTH –client-id –auth-parameters USERNAME=,PASSWORD=

Authenticating the private API for the presigned URL using a JSON Web Token

When you deployed a private API for creating a SageMaker presigned URL, you added a guardrail to restrict access to access the presigned URL by anyone outside the corporate network and VPC endpoint. However, without implementing another control to the private API within the corporate network, any internal user within the corporate network would be able to pass unauthenticated parameters for the SageMaker user profile and access any SageMaker app.

To mitigate this issue, we propose passing a JSON Web Token (JWT) for the authenticated caller to the API Gateway and validating that token with a JWT authorizer. There are multiple options for implementing an authorizer for the private API Gateway, using either a custom Lambda authorizer or Amazon Cognito.

With a custom Lambda authorizer, you can embed a SageMaker user profile name in the returned policy. This prevents any users within the corporate network from being able to send any SageMaker user profile name for creating a presigned URL that they’re not authorized to create. We use Amazon Cognito to generate our tokens and a custom Lambda authorizer to validate and return the appropriate policy. For more information, refer to Building fine-grained authorization using Amazon Cognito, API Gateway, and IAM. The Lambda authorizer uses the Amazon Cognito user name as the user profile name.

If you’re unable to use Amazon Cognito, you can develop a custom application to authenticate and pass end-user tokens to the Lambda authorizer. For more information, refer to Use API Gateway Lambda authorizers.

Configure the corporate DNS server for accessing the private API

To configure your corporate DNS server, complete the following steps:

  1. On the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) console, choose your on-premises DNSA EC2 instance and connect via Systems Manager Session Manager.
  2. Add a zone record in the /etc/named.conf file for resolving to the API Gateway’s DNS name via your Amazon Route 53 inbound resolver, as shown in the following code: zone “zxgua515ef.execute-api..amazonaws.com” { type forward; forward only; forwarders { 10.16.43.122; 10.16.102.163; }; };
  3. Restart the named service using the following command: sudo service named restart

Validate requesting a presigned URL from the API Gateway private API for authorized users

In a real-world scenario, you would implement a front-end interface that would pass the appropriate Authorization headers for authenticated and authorized resources using either a custom solution or leverage AWS Amplify. For brevity of this blog post, the following steps leverages Postman to quickly validate the solution we deployed actually restricts requesting the presigned URL for an internal user, unless authorized to do so.

To validate the solution with Postman, complete the following steps:

  1. Install Postman on the WINAPP EC2 instance. See instructions here
  2. Open Postman and add the access token to your Authorization header: Authorization: Bearer
  3. Modify the API Gateway URL to access it from your internal EC2 instance:
    1. Add the VPC endpoint into your API Gateway URL: https://.execute-api..amazonaws.com/dev/EMPLOYEE_ID
    2. Add the Host header with a value of your API Gateway URL: .execute-api..amazonaws.com
    3. First, change the EMPLOYEE_ID to your Amazon Cognito user and SageMaker user profile name. Make sure you receive an authorized presigned URL.
    4. Then change the EMPLOYEE_ID to a user that is not yours and make sure you receive an access failure.
  4. On the Amazon EC2 console, choose your on-premises WINAPP instance and connect via your RDP client.
  5. Open a Chrome browser and navigate to your authorized presigned URL to launch Studio.

Studio is launched over VPC endpoint with remote address as the Studio VPC endpoint IP.

If the presigned URL is accessed outside of the corporate network, the resolution fails because the IAM policy condition for the presigned URL enforces creation and access from a VPC endpoint.

Pre-Signed URL Lambda Auth Policy

Above solution created the following Auth Policy for the Lambda that generated Pre-Signed URL for accessing SageMaker Studio.

{ “Version”: “2012-10-17”, “Statement”: [ { “Condition”: { “IpAddress”: { “aws:VpcSourceIp”: “10.16.0.0/16” } }, “Action”: “sagemaker:CreatePresignedDomainUrl”, “Resource”: “arn:aws:sagemaker:::user-profile/*/*”, “Effect”: “Allow” }, { “Condition”: { “IpAddress”: { “aws:SourceIp”: “192.168.10.0/24” } }, “Action”: “sagemaker:CreatePresignedDomainUrl”, “Resource”: “arn:aws:sagemaker:::user-profile/*/*”, “Effect”: “Allow” }, { “Condition”: { “StringEquals”: { “aws:sourceVpce”: [ “vpce-sm-api-xx”, “vpce-sm-api-yy” ] } }, “Action”: “sagemaker:CreatePresignedDomainUrl”, “Resource”: “arn:aws:sagemaker:::user-profile/*/*”, “Effect”: “Allow” } ] }

The above policy enforces Studio pre-signed URL is both generated and accessed via one of these three entrypoints:

  1. aws:VpcSourceIp as your AWS VPC CIDR
  2. aws:SourceIp as your corporate network CIDR
  3. aws:sourceVpce as your SageMaker API VPC endpoints

Cleanup

To avoid incurring ongoing charges, delete the CloudFormation stacks you created. Alternatively, if you deployed the solution using SAM, you need to authenticate to the AWS account the solution was deployed and run sam delete.

Conclusion

In this post, we demonstrated how to access Studio using a private API Gateway from a corporate network using Amazon private VPC endpoints, preventing access to presigned URLs outside the corporate network, and securing the API Gateway with a JWT authorizer using Amazon Cognito and custom Lambda authorizers.

Try out with this solution and experiment integrating this with your corporate portal, and leave your feedback in the comments!

About the Authors

Ram Vittal is a machine learning solutions architect at AWS. He has over 20+ years of experience architecting and building distributed, hybrid and cloud applications. He is passionate about building secure and scalable AI/ML and Big Data solutions to help enterprise customers with their cloud adoption and optimization journey to improve their business outcomes. In his spare time, he enjoys tennis, photography, and action movies.

Jonathan Nguyen is a Shared Delivery Team Senior Security Consultant at AWS. His background is in AWS Security with a focus on Threat Detection and Incident Response. Today, he helps enterprise customers develop a comprehensive AWS Security strategy, deploy security solutions at scale, and train customers on AWS Security best practices.

Chris Childers is a Cloud Infrastructure Architect in Professional Services at AWS. He works with AWS customers to design and automate their cloud infrastructure and improve their adoption of DevOps culture and processes.



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Secure Amazon SageMaker Studio presigned URLs Part 1: Foundational infrastructure

You can access Amazon SageMaker Studio notebooks from the Amazon SageMaker console via AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) authenticated federation from your identity provider (IdP), such as Okta. When a Studio user opens the notebook link, Studio validates the federated user’s IAM policy to authorize access, and generates and resolves the presigned URL for…

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You can access Amazon SageMaker Studio notebooks from the Amazon SageMaker console via AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) authenticated federation from your identity provider (IdP), such as Okta. When a Studio user opens the notebook link, Studio validates the federated user’s IAM policy to authorize access, and generates and resolves the presigned URL for the user. Because the SageMaker console runs on an internet domain, this generated presigned URL is visible in the browser session. This presents an undesired threat vector for exfiltration and gaining access to customer data when proper access controls are not enforced.

Studio supports a few methods for enforcing access controls against presigned URL data exfiltration:

  • Client IP validation using the IAM policy condition aws:sourceIp
  • Client VPC validation using the IAM condition aws:sourceVpc
  • Client VPC endpoint validation using the IAM policy condition aws:sourceVpce

When you access Studio notebooks from the SageMaker console, the only available option is to use client IP validation with the IAM policy condition aws:sourceIp. However, you can use browser traffic routing products such as Zscaler to ensure scale and compliance for your workforce internet access. These traffic routing products generate their own source IP, whose IP range is not controlled by the enterprise customer. This makes it impossible for these enterprise customers to use the aws:sourceIp condition.

To use client VPC endpoint validation using the IAM policy condition aws:sourceVpce, the creation of a presigned URL needs to originate in the same customer VPC where Studio is deployed, and resolution of the presigned URL needs to happen via a Studio VPC endpoint on the customer VPC. This resolution of the presigned URL during access time for corporate network users can be accomplished using DNS forwarding rules (both in Zscaler and corporate DNS) and then into the customer VPC endpoint using an AWS Route 53 inbound resolver.

In this part, we discuss the overarching architecture for securing studio pre-signed url and demonstrate how to set up the foundational infrastructure to create and launch a Studio presigned URL through your VPC endpoint over a private network without traversing the internet. This serves as the foundational layer for preventing data exfiltration by external bad actors gaining access to Studio pre-signed URL and unauthorized or spoofed corporate user access within a corporate environment.

Solution overview

The following diagram illustrates over-arching solution architecture.

The process includes the following steps:

  1. A corporate user authenticates via their IdP, connects to their corporate portal, and opens the Studio link from the corporate portal.
  2. The corporate portal application makes a private API call using an API Gateway VPC endpoint to create a presigned URL.
  3. The API Gateway VPC endpoint “create presigned URL” call is forwarded to the Route 53 inbound resolver on the customer VPC as configured in the corporate DNS.
  4. The VPC DNS resolver resolves it to the API Gateway VPC endpoint IP. Optionally, it looks up a private hosted zone record if it exists.
  5. The API Gateway VPC endpoint routes the request via the Amazon private network to the “create presigned URL API” running in the API Gateway service account.
  6. API Gateway invokes the create-pre-signedURL private API and proxies the request to the create-pre-signedURL Lambda function.
  7. The create-pre-signedURL Lambda call is invoked via the Lambda VPC endpoint.
  8. The create-pre-signedURL function runs in the service account, retrieves authenticated user context (user ID, Region, and so on), looks up a mapping table to identify the SageMaker domain and user profile identifier, makes a sagemaker createpre-signedDomainURL API call, and generates a presigned URL. The Lambda service role has the source VPC endpoint conditions defined for the SageMaker API and Studio.
  9. The generated presigned URL is resolved over the Studio VPC endpoint.
  10. Studio validates that the presigned URL is being accessed via the customer’s VPC endpoint defined in the policy, and returns the result.
  11. The Studio notebook is returned to the user’s browser session over the corporate network without traversing the internet.

The following sections walk you through how to implement this architecture to resolve Studio presigned URLs from a corporate network using VPC endpoints. We demonstrate a complete implementation by showing the following steps:

  1. Set up the foundational architecture.
  2. Configure the corporate app server to access a SageMaker presigned URL via a VPC endpoint.
  3. Set up and launch Studio from the corporate network.

Set up the foundational architecture

In the post Access an Amazon SageMaker Studio notebook from a corporate network, we demonstrated how to resolve a presigned URL domain name for a Studio notebook from a corporate network without traversing the internet. You can follow the instructions in that post to set up the foundational architecture, and then return to this post and proceed to the next step.

Configure the corporate app server to access a SageMaker presigned URL via a VPC endpoint

To enable accessing Studio from your internet browser, we set up an on-premises app server on Windows Server on the on-premises VPC public subnet. However, the DNS queries for accessing Studio are routed through the corporate (private) network. Complete the following steps to configure routing Studio traffic through the corporate network:

  1. Connect to your on-premises Windows app server.

  2. Choose Get Password then browse and upload your private key to decrypt your password.
  3. Use an RDP client and connect to the Windows Server using your credentials.
    Resolving Studio DNS from the Windows Server command prompt results in using public DNS servers, as shown in the following screenshot.
    Now we update Windows Server to use the on-premises DNS server that we set up earlier.
  4. Navigate to Control Panel, Network and Internet, and choose Network Connections.
  5. Right-click Ethernet and choose the Properties tab.
  6. Update Windows Server to use the on-premises DNS server.
  7. Now you update your preferred DNS server with your DNS server IP.
  8. Navigate to VPC and Route Tables and choose your STUDIO-ONPREM-PUBLIC-RT route table.
  9. Add a route to 10.16.0.0/16 with the target as the peering connection that we created during the foundational architecture setup.

Set up and launch Studio from your corporate network

To set up and launch Studio, complete the following steps:

  1. Download Chrome and launch the browser on this Windows instance.
    You may need to turn off Internet Explorer Enhanced Security Configuration to allow file downloads and then enable file downloads.
  2. In your local device Chrome browser, navigate to the SageMaker console and open the Chrome developer tools Network tab.
  3. Launch the Studio app and observe the Network tab for the authtokenparameter value, which includes the generated presigned URL along with the remote server address that the URL is routed to for resolution.In this example, the remote address 100.21.12.108 is one of the public DNS server addresses to resolve the SageMaker DNS domain name d-h4cy01pxticj.studio.us-west-2.sagemaker.aws.
  4. Repeat these steps from the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Windows instance that you configured as part of the foundational architecture.

We can observe that the remote address is not the public DNS IP, instead it’s the Studio VPC endpoint 10.16.42.74.

Conclusion

In this post, we demonstrated how to resolve a Studio presigned URL from a corporate network using Amazon private VPC endpoints without exposing the presigned URL resolution to the internet. This further secures your enterprise security posture for accessing Studio from a corporate network for building highly secure machine learning workloads on SageMaker. In part 2 of this series, we further extend this solution to demonstrate how to build a private API for accessing Studio with aws:sourceVPCE IAM policy validation and token authentication. Try out this solution and leave your feedback in the comments!

About the Authors

Ram Vittal is a machine learning solutions architect at AWS. He has over 20+ years of experience architecting and building distributed, hybrid and cloud applications. He is passionate about building secure and scalable AI/ML and Big Data solutions to help enterprise customers with their cloud adoption and optimization journey to improve their business outcomes. In his spare time, he enjoys tennis and photography.

Neelam Koshiya is an enterprise solution architect at AWS. Her current focus is to help enterprise customers with their cloud adoption journey for strategic business outcomes. In her spare time, she enjoys reading and being outdoors.



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Use a custom image to bring your own development environment to RStudio on Amazon SageMaker

RStudio on Amazon SageMaker is the industry’s first fully managed RStudio Workbench in cloud. You can quickly launch the familiar RStudio integrated development environment (IDE), and dial up and down the underlying compute resources without interrupting your work, making it easy to build machine learning (ML) and analytics solutions in R at scale. RStudio on…

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RStudio on Amazon SageMaker is the industry’s first fully managed RStudio Workbench in cloud. You can quickly launch the familiar RStudio integrated development environment (IDE), and dial up and down the underlying compute resources without interrupting your work, making it easy to build machine learning (ML) and analytics solutions in R at scale. RStudio on SageMaker already comes with a built-in image preconfigured with R programming and data science tools; however, you often need to customize your IDE environment. Starting today, you can bring your own custom image with packages and tools of your choice, and make them available to all the users of RStudio on SageMaker in a few clicks.

Bringing your own custom image has several benefits. You can standardize and simplify the getting started experience for data scientists and developers by providing a starter image, preconfigure the drivers required for connecting to data stores, or pre-install specialized data science software for your business domain. Furthermore, organizations that have previously hosted their own RStudio Workbench may have existing containerized environments that they want to continue to use in RStudio on SageMaker.

In this post, we share step-by-step instructions to create a custom image and bring it to RStudio on SageMaker using the AWS Management Console or AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI). You can get your first custom IDE environment up and running in few simple steps. For more information on the content discussed in this post, refer to Bring your own RStudio image.

Solution overview

When a data scientist starts a new session in RStudio on SageMaker, a new on-demand ML compute instance is provisioned and a container image that defines the runtime environment (operating system, libraries, R versions, and so on) is run on the ML instance. You can provide your data scientists multiple choices for the runtime environment by creating custom container images and making them available on the RStudio Workbench launcher, as shown in the following screenshot.

The following diagram describes the process to bring your custom image. First you build a custom container image from a Dockerfile and push it to a repository in Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR). Next, you create a SageMaker image that points to the container image in Amazon ECR, and attach that image to your SageMaker domain. This makes the custom image available for launching a new session in RStudio.

Prerequisites

To implement this solution, you must have the following prerequisites:

We provide more details on each in this section.

RStudio on SageMaker domain

If you have an existing SageMaker domain with RStudio enabled prior to April 7, 2022, you must delete and recreate the RStudioServerPro app under the user profile name domain-shared to get the latest updates for bring your own custom image capability. The AWS CLI commands are as follows. Note that this action interrupts RStudio users on SageMaker.

aws sagemaker delete-app –domain-id –app-type RStudioServerPro –app-name default –user-profile-name domain-shared aws sagemaker create-app –domain-id –app-type RStudioServerPro –app-name default –user-profile-name domain-shared

If this is your first time using RStudio on SageMaker, follow the step-by-step setup process described in Get started with RStudio on Amazon SageMaker, or run the following AWS CloudFormation template to set up your first RStudio on SageMaker domain. If you already have a working RStudio on SageMaker domain, you can skip this step.

The following RStudio on SageMaker CloudFormation template requires an RStudio license approved through AWS License Manager. For more about licensing, refer to RStudio license. Also note that only one SageMaker domain is permitted per AWS Region, so you’ll need to use an AWS account and Region that doesn’t have an existing domain.

  1. Choose Launch Stack.
    Launch stack button
    The link takes you to the us-east-1 Region, but you can change to your preferred Region.
  2. In the Specify template section, choose Next.
  3. In the Specify stack details section, for Stack name, enter a name.
  4. For Parameters, enter a SageMaker user profile name.
  5. Choose Next.
  6. In the Configure stack options section, choose Next.
  7. In the Review section, select I acknowledge that AWS CloudFormation might create IAM resources and choose Next.
  8. When the stack status changes to CREATE_COMPLETE, go to the Control Panel on the SageMaker console to find the domain and the new user.

IAM policies to interact with Amazon ECR

To interact with your private Amazon ECR repositories, you need the following IAM permissions in the IAM user or role you’ll use to build and push Docker images:

{ “Version”:”2012-10-17″, “Statement”:[ { “Sid”: “VisualEditor0”, “Effect”:”Allow”, “Action”:[ “ecr:CreateRepository”, “ecr:BatchGetImage”, “ecr:CompleteLayerUpload”, “ecr:DescribeImages”, “ecr:DescribeRepositories”, “ecr:UploadLayerPart”, “ecr:ListImages”, “ecr:InitiateLayerUpload”, “ecr:BatchCheckLayerAvailability”, “ecr:PutImage” ], “Resource”: “*” } ] }

To initially build from a public Amazon ECR image as shown in this post, you need to attach the AWS-managed AmazonElasticContainerRegistryPublicReadOnly policy to your IAM user or role as well.

To build a Docker container image, you can use either a local Docker client or the SageMaker Docker Build CLI tool from a terminal within RStudio on SageMaker. For the latter, follow the prerequisites in Using the Amazon SageMaker Studio Image Build CLI to build container images from your Studio notebooks to set up the IAM permissions and CLI tool.

AWS CLI versions

There are minimum version requirements for the AWS CLI tool to run the commands mentioned in this post. Make sure to upgrade AWS CLI on your terminal of choice:

  • AWS CLI v1 >= 1.23.6
  • AWS CLI v2 >= 2.6.2

Prepare a Dockerfile

You can customize your runtime environment in RStudio in a Dockerfile. Because the customization depends on your use case and requirements, we show you the essentials and the most common customizations in this example. You can download the full sample Dockerfile.

Install RStudio Workbench session components

The most important software to install in your custom container image is RStudio Workbench. We download from the public S3 bucket hosted by RStudio PBC. There are many version releases and OS distributions for use. The version of the installation needs to be compatible with the RStudio Workbench version used in RStudio on SageMaker, which is 1.4.1717-3 at the time of writing. The OS (argument OS in the following snippet) needs to match the base OS used in the container image. In our sample Dockerfile, the base image we use is Amazon Linux 2 from an AWS-managed public Amazon ECR repository. The compatible RStudio Workbench OS is centos7.

FROM public.ecr.aws/amazonlinux/amazonlinux … ARG RSW_VERSION=1.4.1717-3 ARG RSW_NAME=rstudio-workbench-rhel ARG OS=centos7 ARG RSW_DOWNLOAD_URL=https://s3.amazonaws.com/rstudio-ide-build/server/${OS}/x86_64 RUN RSW_VERSION_URL=`echo -n “${RSW_VERSION}” | sed ‘s/+/-/g’` && curl -o rstudio-workbench.rpm ${RSW_DOWNLOAD_URL}/${RSW_NAME}-${RSW_VERSION_URL}-x86_64.rpm && yum install -y rstudio-workbench.rpm

You can find all the OS release options with the following command:

aws s3 ls s3://rstudio-ide-build/server/

Install R (and versions of R)

The runtime for your custom RStudio container image needs at least one version of R. We can first install a version of R and make it the default R by creating soft links to /usr/local/bin/:

# Install main R version ARG R_VERSION=4.1.3 RUN curl -O https://cdn.rstudio.com/r/centos-7/pkgs/R-${R_VERSION}-1-1.x86_64.rpm && yum install -y R-${R_VERSION}-1-1.x86_64.rpm && yum clean all && rm -rf R-${R_VERSION}-1-1.x86_64.rpm RUN ln -s /opt/R/${R_VERSION}/bin/R /usr/local/bin/R && ln -s /opt/R/${R_VERSION}/bin/Rscript /usr/local/bin/Rscript

Data scientists often need multiple versions of R so that they can easily switch between projects and code base. RStudio on SageMaker supports easy switching between R versions, as shown in the following screenshot.

RStudio on SageMaker automatically scans and discovers versions of R in the following directories:

/usr/lib/R /usr/lib64/R /usr/local/lib/R /usr/local/lib64/R /opt/local/lib/R /opt/local/lib64/R /opt/R/* /opt/local/R/*

We can install more versions in the container image, as shown in the following snippet. They will be installed in /opt/R/.

RUN curl -O https://cdn.rstudio.com/r/centos-7/pkgs/R-4.0.5-1-1.x86_64.rpm && yum install -y R-4.0.5-1-1.x86_64.rpm && yum clean all && rm -rf R-4.0.5-1-1.x86_64.rpm RUN curl -O https://cdn.rstudio.com/r/centos-7/pkgs/R-3.6.3-1-1.x86_64.rpm && yum install -y R-3.6.3-1-1.x86_64.rpm && yum clean all && rm -rf R-3.6.3-1-1.x86_64.rpm RUN curl -O https://cdn.rstudio.com/r/centos-7/pkgs/R-3.5.3-1-1.x86_64.rpm && yum install -y R-3.5.3-1-1.x86_64.rpm && yum clean all && rm -rf R-3.5.3-1-1.x86_64.rpm

Install RStudio Professional Drivers

Data scientists often need to access data from sources such as Amazon Athena and Amazon Redshift within RStudio on SageMaker. You can do so using RStudio Professional Drivers and RStudio Connections. Make sure you install the relevant libraries and drivers as shown in the following snippet:

# Install RStudio Professional Drivers —————————————-# RUN yum update -y && yum install -y unixODBC unixODBC-devel && yum clean all ARG DRIVERS_VERSION=2021.10.0-1 RUN curl -O https://drivers.rstudio.org/7C152C12/installer/rstudio-drivers-${DRIVERS_VERSION}.el7.x86_64.rpm && yum install -y rstudio-drivers-${DRIVERS_VERSION}.el7.x86_64.rpm && yum clean all && rm -f rstudio-drivers-${DRIVERS_VERSION}.el7.x86_64.rpm && cp /opt/rstudio-drivers/odbcinst.ini.sample /etc/odbcinst.ini RUN /opt/R/${R_VERSION}/bin/R -e ‘install.packages(“odbc”, repos=”https://packagemanager.rstudio.com/cran/__linux__/centos7/latest”)’

Install custom libraries

You can also install additional R and Python libraries so that data scientists don’t need to install them on the fly:

RUN /opt/R/${R_VERSION}/bin/R -e “install.packages(c(‘reticulate’, ‘readr’, ‘curl’, ‘ggplot2’, ‘dplyr’, ‘stringr’, ‘fable’, ‘tsibble’, ‘dplyr’, ‘feasts’, ‘remotes’, ‘urca’, ‘sodium’, ‘plumber’, ‘jsonlite’), repos=’https://packagemanager.rstudio.com/cran/__linux__/centos7/latest’)” RUN /opt/python/${PYTHON_VERSION}/bin/pip install –upgrade ‘boto3>1.0<2.0' 'awscli>1.0<2.0' 'sagemaker[local]<3' 'sagemaker-studio-image-build' 'numpy'

When you’ve finished your customization in a Dockerfile, it’s time to build a container image and push it to Amazon ECR.

Build and push to Amazon ECR

You can build a container image from the Dockerfile from a terminal where the Docker engine is installed, such as your local terminal or AWS Cloud9. If you’re building it from a terminal within RStudio on SageMaker, you can use SageMaker Studio Image Build. We demonstrate the steps for both approaches.

In a local terminal where the Docker engine is present, you can run the following commands from where the Dockerfile is. You can use the sample script create-and-update-image.sh.

IMAGE_NAME=r-4.1.3-rstudio-1.4.1717-3 # the name for SageMaker Image REPO=rstudio-custom # ECR repository name TAG=$IMAGE_NAME # login to your Amazon ECR aws ecr get-login-password | docker login –username AWS –password-stdin ${ACCOUNT_ID}.dkr.ecr.${REGION}.amazonaws.com # create a repo aws ecr create-repository –repository-name ${REPO} # build a docker image and push it to the repo docker build . -t ${REPO}:${TAG} -t ${ACCOUNT_ID}.dkr.ecr.${REGION}.amazonaws.com/${REPO}:${TAG} docker push ${ACCOUNT_ID}.dkr.ecr.${REGION}.amazonaws.com/${REPO}:${TAG}

In a terminal on RStudio on SageMaker, run the following commands:

pip install sagemaker-studio-image-build sm-docker build . –repository ${REPO}:${IMAGE_NAME}

After these commands, you have a repository and a Docker container image in Amazon ECR for our next step, in which we attach the container image for use in RStudio on SageMaker. Note the image URI in Amazon ECR .dkr.ecr..amazonaws.com/: for later use.

Update RStudio on SageMaker through the console

RStudio on SageMaker allows runtime customization through the use of a custom SageMaker image. A SageMaker image is a holder for a set of SageMaker image versions. Each image version represents a container image that is compatible with RStudio on SageMaker and stored in an Amazon ECR repository. To make a custom SageMaker image available to all RStudio users within a domain, you can attach the image to the domain following the steps in this section.

  1. On the SageMaker console, navigate to the Custom SageMaker Studio images attached to domain page, and choose Attach image.
  2. Select New image, and enter your Amazon ECR image URI.
  3. Choose Next.
  4. In the Image properties section, provide an Image name (required), Image display name (optional), Description (optional), IAM role, and tags.
    The image display name, if provided, is shown in the session launcher in RStudio on SageMaker. If the Image display name field is left empty, the image name is shown in RStudio on SageMaker instead.
  5. Leave EFS mount path and Advanced configuration (User ID and Group ID) as default because RStudio on SageMaker manages the configuration for us.
  6. In the Image type section, select RStudio image.
  7. Choose Submit.

You can now see a new entry in the list. It’s worth noting that, with the introduction of the support of custom RStudio images, you can see a new Usage type column in the table to denote whether an image is an RStudio image or an Amazon SageMaker Studio image.

It may take up to 5–10 minutes for the custom images to be available in the session launcher UI. You can then launch a new R session in RStudio on SageMaker with your custom images.

Over time, you may want to retire old and outdated images. To remove the custom images from the list of custom images in RStudio, select the images in the list and choose Detach.

Choose Detach again to confirm.

Update RStudio on SageMaker via the AWS CLI

The following sections describe the steps to create a SageMaker image and attach it for use in RStudio on SageMaker on the SageMaker console and using the AWS CLI. You can use the sample script create-and-update-image.sh.

Create the SageMaker image and image version

The first step is to create a SageMaker image from the custom container image in Amazon ECR by running the following two commands:

ROLE_ARN= DISPLAY_NAME=RSession-r-4.1.3-rstudio-1.4.1717-3 aws sagemaker create-image –image-name ${IMAGE_NAME} –display-name ${DISPLAY_NAME} –role-arn ${ROLE_ARN} aws sagemaker create-image-version –image-name ${IMAGE_NAME} –base-image “${ACCOUNT_ID}.dkr.ecr.${REGION}.amazonaws.com/${REPO}:${TAG}”

Note that the custom image displayed in the session launcher in RStudio on SageMaker is determined by the input of –display-name. If the optional display name is not provided, the input of –image-name is used instead. Also note that the IAM role allows SageMaker to attach an Amazon ECR image to RStudio on SageMaker.

Create an AppImageConfig

In addition to a SageMaker image, which captures the image URI from Amazon ECR, an app image configuration (AppImageConfig) is required for use in a SageMaker domain. We simplify the configuration for an RSessionApp image so we can just create a placeholder configuration with the following command:

IMAGE_CONFIG_NAME=r-4-1-3-rstudio-1-4-1717-3 aws sagemaker create-app-image-config –app-image-config-name ${IMAGE_CONFIG_NAME}

Attach to a SageMaker domain

With the SageMaker image and the app image configuration created, we’re ready to attach the custom container image to the SageMaker domain. To make a custom SageMaker image available to all RStudio users within a domain, you attach the image to the domain as a default user setting. All existing users and any new users will be able to use the custom image.

For better readability, we place the following configuration into the JSON file default-user-settings.json:

“DefaultUserSettings”: { “RSessionAppSettings”: { “CustomImages”: [ { “ImageName”: “r-4.1.3-rstudio-2022”, “AppImageConfigName”: “r-4-1-3-rstudio-2022” }, { “ImageName”: “r-4.1.3-rstudio-1.4.1717-3”, “AppImageConfigName”: “r-4-1-3-rstudio-1-4-1717-3” } ] } } }

In this file, we can specify the image and AppImageConfig name pairs in a list in DefaultUserSettings.RSessionAppSettings.CustomImages. This preceding snippet assumes two custom images are being created.

Then run the following command to update the SageMaker domain:

aws sagemaker update-domain –domain-id –cli-input-json file://default-user-settings.json

After you update the domaim, it may take up to 5–10 minutes for the custom images to be available in the session launcher UI. You can then launch a new R session in RStudio on SageMaker with your custom images.

Detach images from a SageMaker domain

You can detach images simply by removing the ImageName and AppImageConfigName pairs from default-user-settings.json and updating the domain.

For example, updating the domain with the following default-user-settings.json removes r-4.1.3-rstudio-2022 from the R session launching UI and leaves r-4.1.3-rstudio-1.4.1717-3 as the only custom image available to all users in a domain:

{ “DefaultUserSettings”: { “RSessionAppSettings”: { “CustomImages”: [ { “ImageName”: “r-4.1.3-rstudio-1.4.1717-3”, “AppImageConfigName”: “r-4-1-3-rstudio-1-4-1717-3” } ] } } }

Clean up

To safely remove images and resources in the SageMaker domain, complete the following steps in Clean up image resources.

To safely remove the RStudio on SageMaker and the SageMaker domain, complete the following steps in Delete an Amazon SageMaker Domain to delete any RSessionGateway app, user profile and the domain.

To safely remove images and repositories in Amazon ECR, complete the following steps in Deleting an image.

Finally, to delete the CloudFormation template:

  1. On the AWS CloudFormation console, choose Stacks.
  2. Select the stack you deployed for this solution.
  3. Choose Delete.

Conclusion

RStudio on SageMaker makes it simple for data scientists to build ML and analytic solutions in R at scale, and for administrators to manage a robust data science environment for their developers. Data scientists want to customize the environment so that they can use the right libraries for the right job and achieve the desired reproducibility for each ML project. Administrators need to standardize the data science environment for regulatory and security reasons. You can now create custom container images that meet your organizational requirements and allow data scientists to use them in RStudio on SageMaker.

We encourage you to try it out. Happy developing!

About the Authors

Michael Hsieh is a Senior AI/ML Specialist Solutions Architect. He works with customers to advance their ML journey with a combination of AWS ML offerings and his ML domain knowledge. As a Seattle transplant, he loves exploring the great Mother Nature the city has to offer, such as the hiking trails, scenery kayaking in the SLU, and the sunset at Shilshole Bay.

Declan Kelly is a Software Engineer on the Amazon SageMaker Studio team. He has been working on Amazon SageMaker Studio since its launch at AWS re:Invent 2019. Outside of work, he enjoys hiking and climbing.

Sean MorganSean Morgan is an AI/ML Solutions Architect at AWS. He has experience in the semiconductor and academic research fields, and uses his experience to help customers reach their goals on AWS. In his free time, Sean is an active open-source contributor and maintainer, and is the special interest group lead for TensorFlow Add-ons.



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